Table of Contents
This chapter is based on material provided by Martin Häfner,
This section introduces UNIX® (Linux®) callback, and how KPPP can be configured to connect to a UNIX® callback server, especially to a script based Linux® callback server
There are several reasons to consider using callback. Some of these are:
To increase the security of your local network
To reduce expenses of external co-workers
To control telephone costs where calls are claimed as business expenses
Think about someone calling the number of your dial in server, and then cracking a password. Why bother to maintain a firewall for your internet connection, if access to your network is that easy?.
Callback software generally asks for your name, and then hangs up the line. It then calls you back, usually at a number that is stored on the server in a database. The client then picks up the phone line and continues with the dial-in as if nothing had happened. The server now requests your username and password, knowing that you are who you said you were when you first dialled in, or at the least, you are where you said you were. The connection is established normally, and the pppd is started.
Now the big question is, how to tell the client to pick up the phone, when the server calls you back. Do you need a special program, such as mgetty? The answer is, no, you don't need a special client program. In general, any client can be used for callback connections, you could even use an ordinary terminal program such as minicom to connect.
The only thing you have to do is tell your modem to
AutoAnswer the phone when a
RING is detected by the modem. This is done
with the following modem command:
This tells the modem to pick the phone up after one
Like a lot of other client programs, KPPP checks to see if the
connection is closed by the server, and then stops the current session if a
NO CARRIER is detected. This, then, is the
real problem when setting up callback.
CARRIER will of course be detected the moment the callback
server hangs up the line. Some servers therefore use a special login program.
So how do you solve this problem? You tell your modem to show
CARRIER UP at all times (which causes no
problems if you tell the client to hang up the line.) You can do this with the
following modem command:
If you want to test this, you can first use an ordinary terminal program such as minicom, and call your callback server, to see what hapens.
So, now that you've seen the theory in action, how do you go about setting up KPPP to handle the connection?
The procedure is quite straightforward, as follows.
First tell the modem to accept connections, and to not stop the negotiation when the callback server hangs up the line for the first time. You can add both these options in the Modem tab of the KPPP configuration, by adding to the option Dial String the string AT&C0S0=1DT
There are no other changes with configuration for KPPP. If you meet trouble with modem init and reset, check the Troubleshooting section for more information.
Think about your server for a moment. Remember that UNIX®, Windows® and Macintosh operating systems have differing opinions about how to end a line in a text file, and therefore, in login procedures too. If you are connecting to a Windows® server, use
CR/LF, if you are connecting to a UNIX® server, use
CR, and if you are connecting to a Macintosh server, use
We are assuming for these instructions that you are calling a Linux® callback package which uses ordinary login (not PAP or such).
Set the Authentication style in the Dial tab of the account configuration to Script-based
Now you have to build the login script. Editing of login scripts is one of the very cool features of KPPP. You can find it in the Login Script tab of the Edit Account dialog.
In this example, the user
userxyzneeds the following script to be called. The callback server already knows the table of names and their applicable phone numbers, so you select the phone number to be used with an alias, for security purposes.
For each line, choose the criteria from the drop down list on the left of the dialog, and type in the action in the text box on its right. Choose the to add each line to the script. You can use to add a line into the middle of the script, and to delete a line if you made a mistake.
The entire script should look something like this (without the comments, shown here starting with a #)
Expect ogin: # remember, we do ordinary terminal login ID "" # kppp sends the id you configured in the main dialog Expect for userxyz: # a list of available numbers is shown, the user should choose one Send userxyz-home # the user wants to be called back on their home number Expect ogin: # The callback process is now running, a new connection, and so a new login. ID Expect assword: # Now send your password Expect > # Wait for the command prompt (the prompt may vary) Send start_ppp # this command starts the pppd
After waiting for the login request, the user sends his ID and waits for a list of available phone numbers for that username. Then he tells the server which of the numbers offered he would like to be called back on. KPPP can open a dialog for this, if your location changes often, e.g. you are a sales representative and move from hotel to hotel. Now the server is expecting login and password for authentication, but in the meantime, the server hangs up and calls the user back. The authentication information is sent, and KPPP waits for a command prompt, and then starts a small script (here called
start_pppwhich fires up pppd on the server.
start_pppscript might look something like the following:
#!/bin/sh stty -echo exec /usr/sbin/pppd -detach silent modem
Of course, setting up a PPP server is not within the scope of this document. For detailed information, see the pppd man pages.
All other configuration issues, such as pppd configuration or IP settings work as normal, and no special software is required to pick up the line.
KPPP callback and other programs such as mgetty or any other faxgetty can be run on the same serial port. There are no problems with the dial in, as KPPP creates a lock file which will tell the getty program that another application (in this case, KPPP of course,) is using the line at that time.
There are some known problems with KPPP in callback mode:
As you initialize the modem to auto answer, you need to reset the modem after your connection is closed. Otherwise, your modem will continue to pick up the line for you, which is not a good idea if the line in question is your main phone line.
KPPP has some small problems when sharing a line with another program, such as mgetty. If mgetty is running on the same modem line, KPPP is not able to initialize the modem correctly.
KPPP is unable to prompt for certain user input during a scripting based login. Unfortunately, when using the example script above, KPPP also asks for the user name the second time the callback server requests it. You can get rid of this by hardcoding your userid into the login script (not very portable or nice, but it works.